Jane Mayer – Dark Money:The Hidden History of Billionaires behind the rise of the radical right. Book Review

Dark Money: The Hidden History of Billionaires behind the rise of the radical right

Introduction and Summary

Jane Mayer, a long-term serving prolific staff writer, and journalist for the New Yorker, convincingly discusses the financial state capture that has ruined American politics for decades. Right from the first chapter of her book, “The Hidden History of Billionaires behind the rise of the radical right,”to the last, the author talks about the few selfish American billionaires who support the Republican Party in every election with an intention of earning more benefits in return. The book generates curiosity at first, but later on, it satisfies the reader’s urge to know more about American political affairs by providing realistic past occurrences that are measurable and exact. It is a preferred book for review in this course because of the author’s in-depth analysis of the filth in the Republican Party, and the way that the operations of a few billionaires affect the lives of millions of Americans.

For 25 years now, Jane Mayer has been working at the New Yorker covering mainly the political news. She is also known for investigative news that unearths the government’s weak sides and shady deals of the dignitaries in the political helm. Her main intention of writing the book, The Hidden History of Billionaires, is to expose the rot that has been deeply rooted in the current American political parties. By singling the Koch brothers and discussing more of how they interfere with American politics, Mayer informs the readers of the political privileges that wealthy Americans enjoy at the expense of the middle class and the poor in American society.

Analysis of the book

Mayer’s resourceful piece clearly defines American political power and forces behind such influences. The journalist narrates how the Koch brothers through their involvement in the political think tanks and the contribution of millions of dollars have ruined America’s democracy (Mayer, 2016). It is worth mentioning, however, that other political parties are not clean or saints when compared to the Republican Party. The non-fictional book exposes the real interest of these tycoons in every election that they are involved in. For that reason, the American political party donations have evolved into a scheme used by billionaires to negotiate for tax cuts and favorable laws that save them more money and give them more opportunity to earn cash in return.

She also sheds light on the American founding principles that are currently in jeopardy. The forefathers argued that the political power should emanate from the people and that the will of the majority should prevail at all costs. The meddling of a few people in the American political sphere, therefore, indicates that truly, the elections are not yet free and fair. The original meaning and intention of donations to the political parties have changed, and it is not about supporting the good agenda of the political party but serving the interests of some few individuals (Mayer, 2016). Mayer, therefore, talks about the hypocrisy currently present in the Republican Party, and how the elected leaders, right from the top leadership positions like the presidency, work hard every day to meet the demands of a few people who sponsored their campaigns during the electioneering period.

The book also captures well concepts such as civic engagement, activism, voting, and identity. The author argues that it is the right for every citizen to know why his/her vote is important. Interestingly, the massive campaigns led by the Republican Party and other political parties have lured the masses to believe exactly what the aspirants say. In most occasions, the public would not vote based on the party principles, but due to the beauty of campaign elements, bribery and showoff that has become the norm across all political parties. The wealthy tycoons have also bought think tanks and activities and on most occasions, they serve their masters who dictate what they share on social media platforms and campaign arenas. After reading Mayer’s book, it is unbelievable how dirty tricks have found a way into American politics.

Mayer uses simple-to-understand English to connect to the readers. Unlike other authors who often use technical terms in all their writings, this author captures the readers’ attention by using normal language to enable them to understand all the crucial points passed through her text. Her comprehensive analysis of the class inequality currently present in America is marvelous. In every part of the book, there must be one or two concepts that a reader can connect with. Additionally, she has arranged vital points in chapters to ease the reading and to make the readers glued to her reading.  Her text is, therefore, organized and appealing to readers. 

One of the notable quotes from the book states that “…it was March 16, 2013, and at the annual Conservative Political Action Conference, the heads of Washington’s most influential conservative think tanks – the closest thing the movement had to wise men or witch doctors – were gathered on one stage to diagnose how the election of 2012 had gone so wrong and deliver a cure…” (Mayer, 2016, p.337). This is a favorite quote because it exposes the role of rich elites in American politics. It shows that in every election period, there is a group of elites who try as much as possible that their preferred candidates get into power. Once their preferred individual is in power, they rest assured of various benefits such as upholding legislation that favors their businesses and lowering taxes for the wealthiest groups, not the American middle class. It is, therefore, a crucial quote for the topic too, because it highlights the deception and insincerity that has flocked the American political parties such as the Republican Party.


Overall, this resourceful and educative political book tells the rot that is currently embedded in the American political parties. At first, I thought of the book as a biased piece written by a democrat journalist to tarnish the name of the Republican party, but upon reading the book carefully, I appreciated the journalist’s effort in writing a detailed and informative piece that tells more about the current American political spheres. One thing that I liked about the book is its objective and robust narration of the current American politics. From the reading, more lessons are learned. One, the political elites control most of the American legislations. Two, the American political donations are in most cases selfish-driven to fulfill the interests of a few insincere business moguls. Third and lastly, the citizens need to read more of such books to get knowledge on how politics works, as this would help them in making more sound decisions during the election periods.


Mayer, J. (2016). The Hidden History of Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Obesity in Adults


Two annotated bibliography on obesity in adults mainly ages 26-50. References have to be from the United States between the years 2011-2020 from a peer reviewed journal.
Review articles, analysis, meta-analysis, editorial, book reviews, letters to the editor, or commentary, etc cannot be used.
Research must take place and include (human) participants in the U.S.

Sample Essay

Annotated Bibliography: Obesity in Adults

Befort, C. A., Nazir, N., & Perri, M. G. (2012). “Prevalence of obesity among adults from rural and urban areas of the United States: findings from NHANES (2005‐2008).” The Journal of Rural Health28(4), 392-397.

            This resourceful scholarly article compares the prevalence of obesity both in America’s rural and urban areas. Befort, Nazir, and Perri (2012) obtained a sample of adults whose ages ranged from 20 to 75 years to assess their health conditions. They placed more emphasis on the racial differences, level of income, the region of residence, weight and height differences. From their study, it is evident that obesity is highly common among American adults who reside in rural areas as compared to those who live in the city regions.

            According to this study, 39.6% of adults who reside in US rural areas are obese as compared to 33.4% of adults in the urban regions. The scholarly resource provides a candid recommendation approach to reducing obesity among adults in America. First, the study revealed that prolonged inactivity is associated with high levels of obesity among adults in urban regions. Therefore, it is high time for adults to embrace physical exercise to reduce the chances of being obese (Befort, Nazir & Perri, 2012). Additionally, the researchers noted concerns about the types of food that adults eat in rural areas and urban regions. The processed foods and meals rich in fats that people living in urban regions like to eat have a connection to obesity; therefore, it is crucial for them to change their diets.

            Overall, both federal and state governments should increase awareness in both rural and urban areas on the health effects of being obese. Based on the high prevalence rates recorded in rural areas, relevant health departments should work closely with the nutritionists, families, schools, and all stakeholders to promote good health among adults. This study plays an important role by providing facts that future researchers can use for further studies on the same topic.

Cohen, A. K., Rehkopf, D. H., Deardorff, J., & Abrams, B. (2013). “Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults.” Social Science & Medicine78, 34-41.

This scholarly article assesses the relationship between education and obesity among American adults at the ages of forty. In the study, Cohen, Rehkopf, Deardorff, and Abrams (2013) accounted for other factors such as gender and racial differences too, as key determinants of obesity among adults. In the robust research conducted by the scholars, it is apparent that the rate of obesity is inversely proportional to the level of educational attainment. That is, based on their study, the higher the level of educational attainment, the lower the risks of being obese.

Additionally, the scholars hypothesized a high prevalence of obesity among whites and women as compared to adults from minority groups and the male gender. From their arguments, the lifestyles of most adults differ hence the differences in the risks of being obese. For instance, they mention that educated adults that are more knowledgeable on the health effects of prolonged inactivity and sedentary behaviors were less likely to become obese.  Therefore, based on the research, lack of information among many adults has led to rising cases of obesity amongst them.

Overall, this crucial scholarly article covers pressing issues on obesity among American adults.  It forms a foundation upon which future studies on the prevalence of obesity among adults in America can be based. The detailed information backed up with a thorough research study makes this article a good choice for the study of this health condition among the Americans. Compared to the first analyzed research study in this paper, this article brings more study on the factors and exhaustively discusses the relationship between education and age and how the two factors influence obesity prevalence among adults in America.


Befort, C. A., Nazir, N., & Perri, M. G. (2012). “Prevalence of obesity among adults from rural and urban areas of the United States: findings from NHANES (2005‐2008).” The Journal of Rural Health28(4), 392-397.

Cohen, A. K., Rehkopf, D. H., Deardorff, J., & Abrams, B. (2013). “Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults.” Social Science & Medicine78, 34-41.

Discrimination and Gender


Evaluate discrimination and gender. How does the mass media reflect discrimination when reporting on sports? Discuss what needs to change and provide some practical recommendations.

Sample Essay

Discrimination and Gender

            The mass media has the sole responsibility of reporting news as it is, without biases or favor. However, in the recent past, more debates regarding the discrimination of women in sports by the media have sprung up. Such debates have led to several talks in social media channels, and additional research studies by various scholars to find long-lasting solutions to the problem (Cooky, Messner, & Musto, 2015). The mass media reflects discrimination when reporting sports in the following ways; one, by displaying women as sex objects, two, by giving more airtime for male sports and establishing more programs discussing men’s games, and lastly, by displaying more obstacles for women in sports compared to the male athletes.

            It is no secret that most sports outlets portray women as sexual objects. This often occurs in media reporting where they give more attention to the physical appearance and beauty of women (Kaskan & Ho, 2016). Additionally, in the international or regional tournaments where male athletes are involved, the media shows their women as beautiful beings and not as people who can bring change in the athletics world (Kaskan & Ho, 2016). The mass media has, therefore, for a very long time turned a blind eye to the women’s ability in sports as they take more time talking about their physiques rather than ability in the games.

            The mass media also reflects discrimination when they take a long time discussing men’s athletics compared to women’s sports. Most channels such as SuperSport focus more on the men’s games compared to female games. Therefore, it is an apparent discriminatory practice embraced by several sports outlets that believe that men’s sporting events attract more viewership than those of females (Cooky, Messner, & Musto, 2015). The neglect of female champions in the media channels, therefore, demoralizes the upcoming female athletes. It is, therefore, high time for the media to embrace all gender in terms of the amount of time given to their sports and analysis of their games. One of the best ways to do this is to encourage more interviews regarding women’s sports and increasing the time for airing women’s games on national television.

            The mass media often present many obstacles for women in sports as compared to men. In most of the sports analysis, women are portrayed as weak genders that cannot what men do in sports (Cooky, Messner, & Musto, 2015). Additionally, the media often reiterates the family roles of women as their key obstacles in sports. Such unfair reporting demoralizes the majority of women who are more determined to achieve their sports ambitions. It is, however, crucial for the media outlets to promote fair and balanced reporting where both men and women are viewed equally.

            Finally, the discrimination of women in sport by the media has led to more harm than good for young females who are determined to achieve their sports ambitions. As explained in this paper, the mass media should stop displaying women as sexual objects and instead, focus on their talents in sports. It is also stressed that both men and women should receive equal airtime in the sports news. Lastly, the media should cease viewing women as people full of major obstacles in sports. Gender discrimination is a big hindrance factor to all aspiring women athletes across the globe; therefore, it is a crucial moment for mass media to change their reporting.


Cooky, C., Messner, M. A., & Musto, M. (2015). “It’s a dude time!” A quarter-century of excluding women’s sports in televised news and highlight shows.” Communication & Sport3(3), 261-287.

Kaskan, E. R., & Ho, I. K. (2016). “Microaggressions and female athletes.” Sex Roles74(7-8), 275-287.

Essay on Sociological Theoretical Perspectives regarding Crime

Sociological Theoretical Perspectives regarding Crime


Sociology experts have attempted to employ several theories in the study and elaboration of issues facing society. This essay will attempt to use three sociological theories to explain the issue of crime. Functionalism theory explains how crime is useful to society. Conflict theory elaborates on the structural causes of crime. Finally, the symbolic interaction theory explains how crime is a learned behavior. Despite their usefulness in expounding specific aspects of crime, these theories form a stronger unified theory when taken together.

Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic interactionism concentrates on the relationships between people within a society. According to this perspective, people interact and exchange meaning by communicating, where communicating involves using language and symbols to make sense of the social world. Symbolic interactionism is based on three propositions (Turner, 2003). First, people interrelate with objects in accordance with the meanings they possess. Such objects can be physical or abstract like actions and perceptions. Therefore, an individual’s behavior is determined by their understanding of reality. Second, interactions with society provide meaning to these objects. Consequently, people will respond to the meanings attached to objects and not to the objects themselves. Third, specific circumstances determine how people interpret the meanings of objects.

Conflict Theory

Conflict theory postulates that society is in constant conflict as people are competing for limited resources. Dominance and power ensure there is social order, not the ability of people to come into an agreement (consensus) or to conform. People with wealth have power and suppress the powerless poor. Conflict theory is characterized by three aspects. First, competition is a constant feature of human relationships. This theory assumes it is the default state. Cooperation is unlikely in the face of scarce material and intangible resources like money and social status respectively. Secondly, proponents of this theory assume the existence of inequality across all social structures and human relationships. Therefore, those in society that find this power imbalance beneficial to them aim to maintain that control. Third, war is viewed as possessing the ability to unify or cleanse societies.

Functionalism theory

Functionalism theory is founded on the assumption that every facet of society is useful and crucial to the survival of that society (Parsons, 1961). Therefore, conditions that fail to benefit the system in terms of development or maintenance is considered to be dysfunctional. Socially and culturally, an individual is not inherently significant. One is only significant in relation to their role or function to the existing social structures. This structural-functional approach is mainly concerned with the stability of society, the integration required to survive for long periods, and the efficiency of such systems. Functionalism, however, ignores the negative consequences of social order.

Conflict theory on crime

According to conflict theory, structural inequality is one of the issues facing society. There exists an elite that exercises power over the underprivileged. These elites determine what qualifies as deviant and criminal behavior. Elite dominance is dependent on the continued exploitation of the poor and is maintained by ensuring social structures oppress and discriminate against the poor. In conflict theory, crime is the result of such social and economic inequality. For example, high social status people commit white-collar crime while low social status people commit blue-collar crime. Because of this inequality, the punishment doled out on the two types of criminals is uneven. For example, a CEO guilty of fraud will receive a minimal or no jail sentence while a factory worker guilty of vandalism will serve a few months in prison in addition to fines.

Functionalism on crime

Functionalism theory views crime as a beneficial phenomenon in society. However, the amount of crime must not be excessive as this could lead to the collapse of society. Crime is necessary for a few reasons. First, not all individuals in a society will conform to the communal beliefs and values of society. Second, even in a perfect society, deviance would exist because the standards of morality would be too high that even the slightest instance of non-conformity would invite great disapproval from society. Crime serves to promote social regulation in that arresting criminals discourages other members of society from being dysfunctional. It also promotes social integration in that people come together and collectively condemn criminal activity when certain heinous crimes are committed. Lastly, crime helps promote social change. In the case where existing law does not serve the purposes of society, it can be changed. Criminals help bring such issues into light by testing the boundaries of permissible behavior.

Symbolic interaction theory on crime

Symbolic interaction theory posits that individuals interact with objects and derive their meaning through their interactions with society (Herman & Reynolds, 1994). Therefore, people learn what is normal behavior and what is deviant behavior from society. A consequence of this line of thought is that criminal activity is a learned behavior. Because normal people can associate with deviant people, they can adopt deviant behavior. This approach attempts to explain why people who come from areas riddled with crime are more likely to engage in criminal activity.


Crime and other social issues do not always have simple explanations for how they occur. The three theories considered here fail to comprehensively explain the societal issue of crime on their own. The macro and micro-level perspectives of these theories are instrumental in understanding how society as a whole and individuals work. The weaknesses of these theories are compensated for in the strengths of the others.


Herman, Nancy J., Reynolds, Larry T. (1994). Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social       Psychology. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.

Parsons, T. (1961). Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory. New             York: Free Press.

Turner, J. (2003). The Structure of Sociological Theory. 7th ed. Belmont, CA:          Thompson/Wadsworth.

How to Write a Case Study

Case study

Several students, as well as individuals in the world over constantly experience challenges especially with specific regard to learning how to write a case study at large. It is no secret that writing essays such as case study reports is difficult and as such, it requires one to develop a suitable understanding of the requisite elements, which largely determine one’s suitability in writing a quality case study on several fronts. In that particular context, the prospects of writing a perfect case study essay whose core tenets meets the threshold of quality increasingly relies on one’s potential to write better on several fronts. Like every other essay, the prospects of writing appropriate case studies, to a larger extent, requires one to develop a proper understanding transcending the scope of learning what it takes to write a case study essay from several diversified dimensions.

How to write a case study

In seeking to write a quality case study, it is imperative that you must develop a proper understanding of the critical tenets whose implementation within the repertoire of one’s writing skills largely serve to enable one with the potential to write a super case study on several fronts. This particular article increasingly seeks to offer critical insights designed to enlighten your understanding on how to write a perfect case study over the scope of your learning trajectory. So then, what does it take one to write a suitable case study essay?

Like all other essay types, a case study report similarly contains specific parts namely; introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and discussion, as well as conclusion. The following steps thus provide a comprehensively crafted analysis detailing how the aforementioned parts feature over the scope of writing a case study, as it were.

  • Thesis statement

In seeking to write a quality case study report, it is imperative that you elicit to your readers the purpose of your case study using a stronger thesis statement and or a statement of a purpose.

  • Introduction

The prospects of writing a suitable case study similarly require you to state the issue and or problem of your case study. In that particular context, you must explain to your reader the significance of your case study as it relates to the topic of your study. Accomplishment of such a feat thus requires you to conduct rigorous research of the said problem in order to develop suitable arguments.

  • Literature review

In seeking to write a suitable case study, it is advisable to rely always on more than one source in a bid to develop proper arguments designed to evaluate your position.

  • Methodology

The prospects of coming up with suitable arguments needed to write a proper case study increasingly relies on your ability to elicit a sound rationale for which to support your arguments in relation to the problem within the context of the study.

  • Findings and discussion

Explain your findings retrieved over the scope of carrying out the study. This helps to support your claims in the context of your stance as illustrated by your thesis statement.

  • Conclusion

Restate the thesis statement. Develop a proper summary of all the elements discussed within the case study.

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Feminine Management Styles Are More Effective Than Masculine Management Styles

Feminine Management Styles Are More Effective Than Masculine Management Styles

Gender-based management in organizations and institutions has always been a controversial topic of discussion. Most people often disagree on who, between men and women, are better leaders. The presence of these controversies indicates that leadership across men and women differs to some extent. In the past, researchers interested in leadership believed that leadership behaviors varied across the two genders, that is, female leaders focused on personal interests while their male counterparts focused mainly on the task at hand. However, recent studies indicate that leadership behaviors are almost similar regardless of gender (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Sharma & Scott-Ladd, 2010). Consequently, female leaders, today are more effective than their fellow male frontrunners.

Women are better transformational leaders than men. Transformational leadership often involves developing a good employer-employee relationship to increase the level of performance at both organization level and individual levels, in this case, referring to the subordinates. However, this type of leadership is not common in men. Male leadership has always been associated with transactional characteristics, that is, business-oriented management (Brandt &Edinger, 2015). Although transactional leadership is essential for the success of a certain organization, transformational management contributes more to this success and it has proved to be effective in most companies. Consequently, having women in leadership guarantees an institution with this form of leadership. Therefore, this shows that the effectiveness and success of a company is dependent mainly on transformational skills, which is in turn dependent on female leadership.

Additionally, other individuals and leaders in an organization acknowledge the effectiveness of women in leadership except for the male leaders of a similar rank. Determining the effectiveness of a leader mainly depends on the individual or party giving the response. According to research, when giving individual responses to their effectiveness, men in leadership appeared to rank themselves higher than women (Bailey, 2014). However, this was different when other parties in the organization gave their responses to who make the most effective leaders in that organization. Employees, third parties as well as those individuals in the highest ranks rated women leaders more than men. It is expected that an individual would not give him or herself a lower rating in terms of effectiveness. However, the opinion of other parties on the same issue determines the relevance and truth of that situation. Therefore, this shows that women leaders are more effective than men, based on responses from other parties in the organization.

Men only appear to be effective because of the notion that most people have, that good leadership is dependent on masculine qualities. Most institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, record a low number of women in leadership. This low population results from the obstacles that most women encounter as they attempt to rise through the ranks. Most individuals believe that the higher ranks are only suited for men (Bailey, 2014). This limiting factor affects most women and discourages them from pushing towards these positions. Moreover, the few women who have made it to these positions have always been considered special and one with preeminent competence. Researches have termed these obstacles as the glass ceiling, which they still believe exists. However, if this glass happened to be broken and women got an easier pathway to the top, I believe that the effectiveness in leadership, as well as organizational success, would increase.

From the reasons stated earlier, some people may ask; if women are more effective in leadership than men, why is it then that the population of women in leadership is very low? One main reason is that, from the past, the female generation has always been considered as a minority. Some researchers developed a controversial hypothesis that the low population of women in leadership is as a result that there is a chance women would not be as effective as men in these positions or that the society has no expectations from them. Moreover, some women in leadership often encounter situations that force them to choose rank or family (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Sharma & Scott-Ladd, 2010). For instance, a higher rank may reduce the time a woman, who is potentially a mother, spends with her family. Most women would choose their families over high ranks. Besides, the existence of institutions that require masculine qualities, for example, military, also limits the population of women in leadership (Brandt &Laiho, 2013). However, men can fit as leaders in almost all institutions, unlike women who are limited to some fields such as education.

Therefore, it is clear that despite the low population in most organizations, women are more effective in terms of management qualities. This is because they possess transformational qualities, which make up the most essential factors of effective leadership. Moreover, other parties in the organization acknowledge that women make better leaders compared to their male counterparts. The perception that women are inferior also limits their effectiveness as they encounter obstacles as they attempt to rise to higher positions in leadership. Finally, the fact that women leaders are a few blinds most people when attempting to determine their effectiveness in leadership. Nonetheless, women make better leaders than men, but only if they have a platform to prove their effectiveness.


Bailey, S. (2014). Who Makes A Better Leader: A Man Or A Woman?. Retrieved 19 November 2019, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/sebastianbailey/2014/07/23/who-makes-a-better-leader-a-man-or-a-woman/#4add4b921260

Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., Sharma, B., & Scott-Ladd, B. (2010). Management: A Pacific Rim Focus (5th ed., p. 5). Australia: McGraw-Hill.

Brandt, T., &Edinger, P. (2015). Transformational leadership in teams – the effects of a team leader’s sex and personality. Gender In Management: An International Journal30(1), 44-68. doi: 10.1108/gm-08-2013-0100

Brandt, T., &Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context. Leadership & Organization Development Journal34(1), 44-66. doi: 10.1108/01437731311289965

Impact of Biometric Authentication in Airport Security

Impact of Biometric Authentication in Airport Security

            This essay is an analysis of an online article titled ‘Changing the Face of Travel’, written by Colleen Manaher on the International Airport Review website dated 15th September 2019. Colleen works at the United States Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) as an executive director for Planning, Program Analysis, and Evaluation. According to Colleen, air travel is becoming an ever more popular and common means of travel in the world today. The air travel industry is booming but with it comes certain challenges such as increased security threats and slow, inefficient processes that cannot handle the increasing demands faced by airports and airlines. The author’s thesis, therefore, becomes that for the air travel industry to adequately meet future demand and protect customers from security threats such as terrorist attacks, new biometric facial recognition systems should be employed. Colleen (2019) argues that such systems will lead to more secure and definitively smooth, consistent travel experiences for customers. Additionally, airports and airlines will achieve improved productivity gained by their less clogged, more efficiently-run systems.

Current State of Things

            The significance of implementing a new biometric-based security system is only appreciated when the weaknesses of the current system are brought into full view. Currently, customers have to spend a lot of time in long check-in queues and slow boarding systems where four to five different entities verify and validate every document you carry. If forecasts show that air traffic will increase with more customers going through the pipeline, one can only expect longer wait times and frustrated passengers. A report by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shows that on an annual basis, air traffic will balloon by approximately 5% to about 8 billion passengers in 2036 up from 4 billion in 2017 (Colleen, 2019). As the author states, biometric system implementation better solves the problem than traditional methods such as building new and expanding old facilities.


The author’s argument so far has sufficient merit and even the casual observer will note that mathematics is strongly in favor of the adoption of the new system. Despite this, the author strengthens his position by revealing more facts to support his thesis. Colleen states that through a combination of mobile technology, cloud services, and biometrics, the new system delivers 98% accuracy during passenger inspection which leads to faster movement through the airport services pipeline.

Furthermore, the data from the article is relevant to airport planning and management professionals who recognize that an airport ecosystem is delicate and should only be upset when necessary. Implementation of the biometric system does not require expensive, time-consuming infrastructure changes as Colleen states. As a case study, Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) created a facial matching service that integrates seamlessly with the airport and airline ecosystems, tailored to the needs of each system that makes up the ecosystem. The matching service, dubbed Travel Verification Service (TVS), leverages cloud-based functionalities to automatically compare facial data obtained from cameras at entry/exit points to customer data from each airline’s databases. Here, airport planning and management professionals will appreciate the power of technology which allows different systems to interface at low cost.

The author cites another article that introduces more information relevant to air travel professions, namely market sentiment on biometric use. Directors of airlines and airports cannot ignore the opinions of their customers. Professionals are reminded they are in a service industry where customer feedback is indispensable. The article referenced a Sita survey which stated that over 57% of passengers prefer the biometric system (Mason, 2018). This is understandable seeing that for a 99% success rate, the customer takes only 2 seconds in front of a camera to be identified. 63% and 43% of airports and airlines respectively will adopt the new system in the next three years. Critically, airport planners and managers are challenged to be prepared for market changes.


The article was overly positive citing only the benefits of the new system. Other resources had several concerns related to the privacy and security of user data. I do not see any bias on the author’s part as such issues were expertly handled. First, naysayers felt that the system may not always work. Second, they were cautious of business misappropriating private user data to suit their own needs. Third, they cited that such a decentralized system is insecure and susceptible to security breaches (WTC, 2019). The TVS system used by Colleen solves or accounts for each of those problems. First, it has a 98% success rate. Not only that, it uses facial data since other types of biometric data (iris scans, fingerprints) are not universally required for international travel like photographs are. Passengers are also not forced to use biometrics. Second, the TVS does not permit airlines and airports to retain the photos taken, deleting them after 12 hours. Two-factor authentication and encryption fortify the system. Third, blockchain-based systems are decentralized but still secure (Colleen, 2019).


Technology will always be a useful tool as it propels human civilization. The air travel industry is on the verge of another new technological revolution that promises more benefits than disadvantages. Biometric technology has already been adopted and proved its usefulness and airport planners and managers will do well to be at the forefront of the wave.


Colleen, Mahaner. (2019). Changing the face of travel. Retrieved from             https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/94347/changing-the-face-of–    travel  

Mason, Marcy. (2018). The biometric breakthrough within the security industry. Retrieved           from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/77375/biometric-           breakthrough

World Tourism Council (WTC). (2019). Four challenges for biometrics in the travel sector.         Retrieved from https://medium.com/@WTTC/four-challenges-for-biometrics-in-the-    travel-sector.

Get custom writing assistance for your Business Plan

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How to Write an Essay #BuyEssay #EssayHelp

How to Write an Essay

The process of writing operates within the confines of similar concepts as applicable to every other art. The trajectory relative to the development of commendable writing skills involves mastering a diverse array of critical elements. Accordingly, thus, a writer who aspires to be exemplary must incorporate a variety of considerable steps. Thus far, this article will discuss the said steps in the context of how they promote the development of good writing skills.

Decide on the type of essay

Before commencing the actual writing process, it is necessary for one to decisively choose the type of essay that one wishes to write. One may seemingly opt to write one of four essay categories, including, but not limited to; persuasive, expository, narrative, as well as descriptive essay categories. A narrative essay entails the use of informal and straightforward language in relating events as if one were telling the events as captured in a story. One may similarly opt to write an expository essay, which majorly involves a close examination of events as they unfurl. An expository essay, in this regard, involves an explanation of the scope of a particular process. A persuasive essay, on the other hand, involves the prospects of appealing to the reader on a particular topic. A descriptive essay, on the other hand, entails a description of one’s experiences.


The next step ascribes the crucial need for the development of an essay topic before one decides to pour their heart out on paper. The process of brainstorming through a diverse array of one’s options in search of a better essay topic plays a critical role in coming up with a commendable essay. A valid process for brainstorming involves the implementation of a wide array of concepts. First off, it is recommended that one must note down whatever topics stream through one’s minds in a bid to narrow on what topic to write on later. One may also opt to mind map ideas in an attempt to come up with a perfect idea on which to write about. Mind mapping involves the process of noting down the main idea on paper thereafter developing subsidiary ideologies, which relate to the main idea. Brainstorming endows one with the potential to choose the best topic from which to develop a suitable essay.

Conduct effective research on the topic

After one comes up with a suitable essay topic, what follows next is the conduction of rigorous research about that topic. Individuals may gain access to online libraries and or interview professional people for purposes of developing a deeper perspective and points about their chosen essay topic. Also, after the conduction of further research, it is critical for one to organize their points appropriately for purposes of enhancing the process of writing.

Develop a coherent thesis

The thesis statement forms the basis of the whole essay. As such, it is necessary for one to define it in the most coherent terms as possible in a bid to enable your audience to understand what your essay is all about. The thesis statement must be reflected in the first paragraph of the essay. Nonetheless, one must choose a broad thesis statement that warrants the derivation of a diverse amount of content.

Outline your essay

The process of writing an outline underscores the scope of writing a logical paper. An outline of an essay paper represents the basic body of the essay. By writing an outline, one hones the ability to arrange the logic, flow, and order of the entire essay. The best outline involves jotting down a thesis statement thereafter writing a topic sentence for every paragraph. This implies that one must figure out the content of every paragraph before writing them. Here are a few pointers on how to build a perfect outline:

  • Avoid stacking several ideas in a single paragraph in a bid to prevent the reader from getting confused.
  • Incorporate effective transitions for purposes of enhancing the reader’s perception concerning the flow of the essay.
  • Incorporate complementary evidence in each subsequent paragraph. Ensure that every paragraph reflects the thesis statement in a bid to create a clear and articulate essay.

Write your essay

Once you develop your essay outline, you may now commence actual writing. In writing your essay, follow the prompt as defined by the outline, as this will serve to create a cohesive and articulate essay. Over the scope of writing your essay, check out these pointers in writing a perfect essay:

  • Revise for consistency, clarity, as well as structure.
  • Ensure that information in every paragraph supports the thesis statement. Also, ensure you begin every paragraph with a topic sentence. A topic informs the reader on the content covered in the paragraph.
  • Connect every paragraph with transition words in a bid to create a cohesive essay.
  • Finally, read your introduction and conclusion to ensure that they communicate the content of the essay to the reader.
  • Check for spelling and grammar to ensure the essay is correctly punctuated.


How to write a Book Review #BuyEssay #EssayHelp

How to write a book review

Book reviews play an important role in creating a suitable conduit that increasingly serves to bridge the gap, which transcends a global understanding of several varied book contents.  Several students have always experienced challenges especially when it comes to how to write a book review that meets the recommended successful threshold from broader spectrums. In case you have experienced such difficulties, worry not, because this particular article increasingly aims to show you a diverse array of educated tips focusing on how to write a book review on several fronts. Book reviews endow us with the potential to share thoughts with other readers on a much grander scale. The prospect of reading a book is always fun whereas the prospect of writing a book review is not so easy as it increasingly requires one to have mastered the skill of writing proper book reviews that meet the successful threshold on several fronts. For purposes of making it a little bit easy on your part, this article offers a list of tips below that increasingly illustrate how to write a book review accordingly

First things first

In writing a book review, ensure that you state the following list of elements;

The title of the book



Publication date




Special features


Define the plot

In seeking to write a perfect book review, it is recommended that you describe the plot of the book to your audience in a bid to get them hooked on with the rest of the book review. A description of the plot of a book increasingly offers a scintillating kicker to the reader, thereby serving to grasp the attention of your audience and keep them wanting more.

Locate your hook

In writing a book review, it is advisable to hook your reader in a bid to keep them focused and yearning for more of the book review. Begin the review with an attention-grabbing statement that catches the attention of the reader right before beginning to skim through the book review.

Articulate your opinion

In writing a book review, ensure that you do not get caught up in any one aspect over the other but rather ensure that you address all the requisite parts as explicitly as possible. Inform the reader of what you find wrong about the book and what you think was amusing.

Make your voice known to your readers

In writing a book review, several readers will always yearn for reviews written by a particular reviewer as opposed to another. That predilection of one writer over another increasingly relies on the tastes and style, which certain reviewers incorporate in their reviews.

Evaluate the critiques and praises

In writing a good book review, ensure that you clearly explain to the readers why you praise the book, as well as any other detraction, which you might level against the book over the scope of your review. Such evaluation increasingly serves to create a suitable framework whose core tenets increasingly serve to better enlighten the reader regarding said aspects.

Rely on our academic writing services at perfectwritersblog.org for help on how to write a book review

In seeking to write a book review paper, you may use our guide to develop perfect reviews that will enable you to get better grades. We at perfectwritersblog.org treasure your education and ensure that you get better grades at affordable costs. At perfectwritersblog.org we value your feedback above all else. Our team has decorated writers with the necessary skill needed to develop magical book reviews depending on your taste for a small fee. In seeking to write book reviews, contact us at perfectwritersblog.org for the best custom book review essays. Terms and conditions apply!